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The Xenophile Historian

The African Union Algeria Angola Benin Burkina Faso Burundi
Botswana Cameroon Cape Verde Islands Central African Republic Chad Comoros
Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea
Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar
Mali Malawi Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique
Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda Sao Tome & Principe Senegal
Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland
Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

A History of Africa


(and malcontents)

Chapter 1: The Original Africans
Chapter 2: Valley of the Pharaohs (Egypt before 664 B.C.)
Chapter 3: Carthage (814 to 264 B.C.)
Chapter 4: Africa in the Classical Era (664 B.C. to 641 A.D.)
Chapter 5: The Trading Kingdoms (641 to 1415 A.D.)
Chapter 6: The Forest Kingdoms (1415 to 1795 A.D.)
Chapter 7: The Dark Continent Partitioned (1795 to 1914 A.D.)
Chapter 8: "Wind of Change" (1914 to 1965 A.D.)
Chapter 9: The Independence Era (1965 to 2005 A.D.)
Special Pages


Chapter 1: The Original Africans

When the Sahara Was Green
The First Steps Toward Civilization


Chapter 2: Valley of the Pharaohs

Egypt before 664 B.C.

Part I

The Gift of the Nile
Most Ancient Egypt
The Archaic or Protodynastic Era
The Pyramid Age
Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt
Egyptian Mathematics and Science
Ancient Nubia
The End of the Old Kingdom

Part II

The First Intermediate Period
The Middle Kingdom
The Second Intermediate Period
The Rise of the New Kingdom

Part III

Thutmose I
The First Feminist
Imperial Egypt
The Amarna Revolution
The Ramessid Age
The Third Intermediate Period


Chapter 3: Carthage

814 to 264 B.C.

Elissa's New City
The First Phase of the Struggle For Sicily
The Dionysian Wars
Timoleon's War
Agathocles Strikes the Carthaginian Heartland
The Pyrrhic Epilogue


Chapter 4: Africa in the Classical Era

664 B.C. to 641 A.D.

Part I

Egypt: The Late Period
The Persian Conquests
Alexander's Victory Tour
The Good Ptolemies
The Bad Ptolemies
The Queen of Kings
Kush: The Meroitic Phase

Part II

The End of Pharaonic Egypt
Roman Africa
North African Christianity
The Vandal Kingdom
Meanwhile, Below the Sahara
Africa's Population In Ancient Times
Ancient African Explorers


Chapter 5: The Trading Kingdoms

641 to 1415

The Sword of Islam
The Settlement of Madagascar
Across the Burning Sands
The Rise of Ghana
Islam Divided
Nigerian Surprises
The Cities of the Messiah and the Conqueror
Cities of Coral
Ghana Revisited
Medieval Ethiopia and Nubia
The Legend of Prester John
The Prince of Travelers
Kanem, Bornu and the Hausa States
Mapungubwe, Thulamela and Zimbabwe: A Heritage Restored


Chapter 6: The Forest Kingdoms

1415 to 1795

Part I

Prince Henry's Captains
The Way to the Orient
Kongo and the Rise of Modern Slavery
Mwene Mutapa
Cross vs. Crescent: The Indian Ocean and East Africa
Cross vs. Crescent: The Mediterranean Front and the Maghreb
Morocco and the Sahel Out of Balance

Part II

East African Tribal Migrations
Dutch, French, English and Omani Intruders
Oyo and Dahomey
Luba, Lunda and Kuba
The Barbary States
The Cape Colony
Madagascar Coalesces
The Effects of the Slave Trade on Population


Chapter 7: The Dark Continent Partitioned

1795 to 1914

Part I

Great Britain Comes to South Africa
The Napoleonic Gambit
The Fulani Jihads
"To the Shores of Tripoli"
The Golden Age of African Exploration Begins
Shaka Zulu
Madagascar: The Merina Monarchy
Mohammed Ali Modernizes Egypt
The Abolitionist Triumph
France Invades Algeria
Aftershocks of the Mfecane
The Great Trek
David Livingstone

Part II

The Quest for the Source of the Nile
Egypt in Bondage
The Mahdist Revolt
Abyssinia Regenerates
The Zulu War
The "Scramble for Africa," Part I
From the Cape to Cairo
"Heart of Darkness"
From Dakar to Djibouti
The Boer War
Libya and Morocco: The Last Unturned Stones


Chapter 8: "Wind of Change"

1914 to 1965

Part I

World War I
Troubles in the Italian Empire
The Beginnings of African Nationalism
The Rif War and Maghreb Nationalism
The Road to World War II Passed Through Ethiopia
The Liberation of French Africa
The See-Saw Struggle in North Africa
Decolonization Begins
North Africa Rejoins the Arab World

Part II

The Algerian War
The Mau Mau Rebellion
"The African Year": Independence Below the Sahara
The Congo Crisis
South Africa and Rhodesia: Segregation Forever


Chapter 9: The Independence Era

1965 to 2005

Part I

Independence: Tying Up the Loose Ends
Civil War in the Ex-Portuguese Empire
Who Owns the Western Sahara?
One-Man Rule:
       The Good
       The Bad
       And the Ugly
North Africa Takes a Military Road
       Tunisia & Egypt
       Somalia & Sudan

Part II

Nigeria: The Great Underachiever
The Horn of Africa: Horn of Famine
       Ethiopia & Eritrea
Southern Africa: The Fall of Apartheid
       South Africa
       Southwest Africa/Namibia
Rwanda, Burundi, and the Congo: Still the Dark Heart of Africa

Part III

The Island at the End of the World
America's Stepchild and Her Anarchic Neighbors
       The Ivory Coast
       Sierra Leone
The Islamist Menace
Starting Over Again With the African Union
Modern African Demographics
The Challenges Facing Modern Africa


Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt and Kings of Ancient Nubia

The Ipuwer Papyrus (Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage)

A Special Message for Cabinda

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